ILMU BAHASA INGGRIS VERSI ANGIN

A. Future Tense

1. Present Future Tense
S +Present will/to be going to/want to/plan to + V + (transitive/intransitive)
2. Present Future Continuous Tense
S + will be + V-ing + (transitive/intransitive)
3. Present Future Perfect Tense
S + will have + V-3 + (transitive/intransitive)
4. Present Future Perfect Continuous Tense
S + will have been + V-ing + (transitive/intransitive)

Additional auxiliary constructions used to express futurity are labelled as follows:

Future Continuous: Auxiliary + Verb Stem + Present Participle

  • I shall/will be going

  • You will be singing

  • He will be sleeping

  • We may be coming

  • They may be travelling

  • It will be snowing when Nancy arrives

  • It will not be raining when Josie leaves

Future Perfect: Auxiliary + Verb Stem + Past Participle

  • I shall/will be gone

  • You will have sung

  • He will have slept

  • We may have come (“We may be come” can still be used poetically, but it is obsolete in speech)

  • They may have travelled

  • It will have snowed

  • It will not have rained

Future Perfect Habitual (or Future Perfect Continuous): Auxiliary + Verb Stem + Past Participle + Present Participle

  • I shall/will have been going

  • He will have been sleeping

  • We may have been coming

  • It will have been snowing

  • It will not have been raining

B. Conditional clause

1. Conditional clause type 1

if + Simple Present, will-Future

Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don’t use a comma.

Example: I will send her an invitation if I find her address.

Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Present und will-Future on how to form negative sentences.

Example: If I don’t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.

Use

Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don’t know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.

Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.

I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure, however, that I will find it.

Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.

I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferraris. So I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari.

2. Conditional clause type 2

if + Simple Past, Hauptsatz mit Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don’t use a comma.

Example: I would send her an invitation if I found her address.

Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Past und Conditional I on how to form negative sentences.

Example: If I had a lot of money, I wouldn’t stay here.

Were instead of Was

In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use ‚were‘ – even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it –.

Example: If I were you, I would not do this.

Use

Conditional Sentences Type II refer to situations in the present. An action could happen if the present situation were different. I don’t really expect the situation to change, however. I just imagine „what would happen if…“

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address, but I cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address.

Example: If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.

I know John very well and I know that he doesn’t have much money, but he loves Ferraris. He would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very unlikely that he will have the money to buy one in the near future.

3. Conditional clause type 3

if + Past Perfect, Hauptsatz mit Conditional II

Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don’t use a comma.

Example: I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address.

Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Past Perfect and Conditional II on how to form negative sentences.

Example: If I hadn’t studied, I wouldn’t have passed my exams.

Use

Conditional Sentences Type III refer to situations in the past. An action could have happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then, however. We just imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled.

Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn’t find her address, however. So in the end I didn’t send her an invitation.

Example: If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.

I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris. He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.

C. Preference

1. Prefer

Rumus:

  • Subject + Prefer + to infinitive

  • Subject + Prefer + Nouns + to + Nouns

  • Subject + Prefer + Gerund + to + Gerund

Contoh:

  • They prefer to go now

  • My mother prefers lemon to orange

  • She prefers watching TV to listening to the radio

2. Would Rather

Rumus:

  • Subject + would rather + Kata kerja bentuk I (tanpa to- Infinitives)

  • Subject + would rather + Infinitives + than + Infinitives

  • Subject + would rather + Infinitives + Noun + than + Inf + Noun

  • Subject + would rather + someone + Bentuk II

Contoh:

  • I would rather study now

  • She would rather stay home than go shopping

  • We’d rather play card than play ball

  • I’d rather you went now

3. Would Prefer to

Rumus:

  • Subject + Would Prefer to + infinitive +rather than + inf

  • Subject + would Prefer to + infinitives + Nouns + rather than + infinitives + Nouns

Contoh:

  • They would prefer to sing rather than dance

  • You’d prefer to play ball rather than take a sleep

4. Like

Rumus:

  • Subject + Like + Nouns/Gerunds

  • Subject + like +gerunds + better than + gerund

  • Subject + like + noun + better than + noun

Contoh:

  • I like singing a song

  • She likes singing a song better than playing a guitar

  • They like coffee better than tea

5. Had Better

Rumus:

  • Subject + had better + infinitive

  • Subject + had better + not + infinitive

Contoh:

  • You had better study hard

  • You had better not work on Sundays

6. It’s time

Rumus:

  • It’s time + to infinitives

  • It’s time + Subject + Bentuk past

Contoh:

  • It’s time to get up

  • It’s time you went away

7. Instead of

Instead of kita gunakan sebagai pengganti dari: to, than, better than, rather than

Rumus:

  • Instead of + Gerund/Nouns

Contoh:

  • I prefer staying home instead of going out

  • They would rather eat their lunch instead of work

  • I woud prefer to invite them instead of him

  • He likes me instead of him

D. Imperative

Aktif : S + Verb (Kata Kerja) + Objek + dll

Pasif : Objek + to be + Verb 3 (Kata Kerja Bentuk III) ( + by subjek) + dll

To be yang digunakan

  1. Present : is, am, are

  2. Past : was, were

  3. Perfect : been (di depan have, has, atau had)

  4. Future : be (setelah modals)

  5. Continuous : being (di depan salah satu dari 7 to be di atas)

Contoh :

  1. Jack sings a song (active)

  2. A song is sung by Jack (Passive)

  1. Jack sang a song yesterday (active)

  2. A song was sung by Jack yesterday (passive)

  1. Jack has sung a song (active)

  2. A song has been sung by Jack (passive)

  1. Jack will sing a song (active)

  2. A song will be sung by Jack (passive)

  1. Jack is singing a song (active)

  2. A song is being sung by Jack (passive)

E. Business Letters

A business letter is more formal than a personal letter. It should have a margin of at least one inch on all four edges. It is always written on 8½”x11″ (or metric equivalent) unlined stationery. There are six parts to a business letter.

1. The Heading

This contains the return address (usually two or three lines) with the date on the last line.

Sometimes it may be necessary to include a line after the address and before the date for a phone number, fax number, E-mail address, or something similar.

Often a line is skipped between the address and date. That should always be done if the heading is next to the left margin. (See Business Letter Styles.)

It is not necessary to type the return address if you are using stationery with the return address already imprinted. Always include the date.

2. The Inside Address.

This is the address you are sending your letter to. Make it as complete as possible. Include titles and names if you know them.

This is always on the left margin. If an 8½” x 11″ paper is folded in thirds to fit in a standard 9″ business envelope, the inside address can appear through the window in the envelope.

An inside address also helps the recipient route the letter properly and can help should the envelope be damaged and the address become unreadable.

Skip a line after the heading before the inside address. Skip another line after the inside address before the greeting.

3. The Greeting. Also called the salutation.

The greeting in a business letter is always formal. It normally begins with the word “Dear” and always includes the person’s last name.

It normally has a title. Use a first name only if the title is unclear–for example, you are writing to someone named “Leslie,” but do not know whether the person is male or female. For more on the form of titles, see Titles with Names.

The greeting in a business letter always ends in a colon. (You know you are in trouble if you get a letter from a boyfriend or girlfriend and the greeting ends in a colon–it is not going to be friendly.)

4. The Body.

The body is written as text. A business letter is never hand written. Depending on the letter style you choose, paragraphs may be indented. Regardless of format, skip a line between paragraphs.

Skip a line between the greeting and the body. Skip a line between the body and the close.

5. The Complimentary Close.

This short, polite closing ends with a comma. It is either at the left margin or its left edge is in the center, depending on the Business Letter Style that you use. It begins at the same column the heading does.

The block style is becoming more widely used because there is no indenting to bother with in the whole letter.

6. The Signature Line.

Skip two lines (unless you have unusually wide or narrow lines) and type out the name to be signed. This customarily includes a middle initial, but does not have to. Women may indicate how they wish to be addressed by placing Miss, Mrs., Ms. or similar title in parentheses before their name.

The signature line may include a second line for a title, if appropriate. The term “By direction” in the second line means that a superior is authorizing the signer.

F. Grammar

1. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang telah selesai dilakukan

di waktu yang akan datang.

RUMUS : I,We+shall+verb 3

She,He,Thay,It+will+verb 3

contoh kalimat:

(+)She will have returned to Surabaya next Monday

(-) She will not have returned to Surabaya next Monday

(?)Will she have returned to Surabaya next Monday?

2. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSE

Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang pada suatu saat di waktu lampau

akan berlangsung.

RUMUS: I,We+should+have been+verb 1+ing

She,He,They,It+would+have been+verb 1+ing

contoh kalimat:

(+)I should have been happy if he had been serious.

(-) I should not have been happy if he had been serious.

(?) Should i have been happy if he had been serious?

G. Relative pronouns

Kata Ganti Kata Pengantar Contoh Kalimat
1. Relative Pronouns Fungsi:
Orang Who, Whom, Whose, That

Subjek:

He paid the money to the man who / that had done the work

Objek Kata Kerja:

He paid the man whom/that he had hired.

Objek Kata Depan:

He paid the man from whom he had borrowed the money.

Kata Ganti Kepunyaan:

This is the girl whose picture you saw.

Benda, Binatang Which, that

Subjek:

Here is a book which/that describes animals.

Objek Kata Kerja:

The chair which/that he broke is being repaired.

Objek Kata Depan:

She was wearing the coat for which she had paid $2,00.

2. Relative Adverbs
Waktu when

This is the year when the Olympic Games

are held.

Tempat where Here is the house where I live.
Alasan why Give me one good reason why you did that.

1. Relative Pronoun

Adalah Adjective Clause dengan memakai kata penghubung Relative Pronoun.

Contoh:

The boy is called Bob. He gave me a present.

The boy who gave me a present is called Bob. atau

The boy who is called Bob gave me a present.

Beberapa contoh Adjective Clause:

The boy whose radio was stolen is a student.

The girl whom I gave a special reward is a bright student.

The bike which I borrowed last week was sold.

2. Relative Adverb

Pelajaran tentang ini dibahas lebih lengkap pada Relative Clause. Hal-hal yang perlu ditambahkan di sini, yaitu:

1. Kata Why (yang menunjukkan alasan) yang menjadi Adverb penghubung, mungkin (kadang-kadang) dapat digantikan dengan that atau kadang-kadang dapat dihilangkan dalam kalimat.

The reason (that) I came should be obvious to you.

The reason (why) I came should be obvious to you.

The reason I came should be obvious to you.

2. When atau Where Bering dapat Baling ditukarkan dengan Preposition yang menunjukkan tempat (a preposition of Place) ditambah dengan Which.

The small town in which (= where) I was born has grown to a large metropolis.

The day on which (= when) they were to leave finally arrived.

7 Tanggapan to “ILMU BAHASA INGGRIS VERSI ANGIN”

  1. apa perbedaan defininng relative clause dan non defining relative clause..???

  2. informasinya saya sangan membutuhkannya…!!

  3. reven Says:

    wiiih sangat membantuu thanks🙂

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